An organism that causes multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most effective TB drugs. These drugs are used to treat all persons with TB disease. Drug-resistant TB (DR TB) is transmitted in the same way as drug-susceptible TB. One person can spread TB to another through the air. When someone with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings, TB bacteria are released into the air. By breathing in these bacteria, people nearby may become infected. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug resistance or Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis occurred due to spontaneous and random chromosomal mutations that result in reduced susceptibility to specific agents. In addition, drug resistance is possible by the activation of the efflux pump on the bacteria’s surface, drug target modification, the production of drug inactivating enzymes, and the disruption of drug activation and many more.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment
Drug resistance can manifest in two ways which are primary or secondary resistance. Primary resistance grows when patients are expose to and infected with an already drug-resistant strain. Secondary or acquired resistance develops in patients taking TB medication due to poor adherence to medication, drug malabsorption, and an inadequate regimen.
Now, let us check out various ways of diagnosing and taking the correct treatment for multi-drug resistance tuberculosis. It will offer in-depth knowledge of the treatment for long-term results.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis
A rapid and precise drug sensitivity test (DST) is the test which provides evidence for selecting an effective drug. It is require to get successful MDR-TB (Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis) diagnosis and treatment. DST is classified as phenotypic tests, which look at growth or metabolic inhibition in anti-TB drug-free and drug-containing media, and molecular tests. which look for genes associated with drug resistance. Traditional phenotypic DST is a reliable culture-base method that employs egg- or agar-based media.
The proportion method is the most widely use. It is the standard method for phenotypic testing, which provides a measure of a bacteria’s susceptibility to a drug. Because of its technical simplicity, the absolute concentration method is also widely used. These methods are sensitive, have a high clinical correlation, and allow for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration.
If the problem arises due to tobacco consumption, then also proper diagnosis of the issue is made. After this, treatment or medication is provided to the patients.
Treatment of Tuberculosis
The goal of MDR-TB treatment is to cure the individual patient while preventing MDR-TB (Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis) transmission to others. In 2006, the WHO issue guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis, which were update in 2011. For the treatment of patients with MDR-TB, these updated guidelines recommend the use of rapid diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and a combination of four effective drugs, including pyrazinamide, an injectable agent, and a later generation fluoroquinolone.
The treatment and medication will depend on four antimicrobial drugs and antibiotics. These will produce the correct level of nutrition in the body. As a result, the killing of the bacteria is possible to stop the spread of the disease. Do not forget to consult the experts for the correct treatment and medication for curing the disease.
Control over the infection
However, the poorer outcomes of injectable agents could be attributed to various confounding factors, including drug changes during treatment, misclassification of treatment outcomes, and their use in severe clinical cases. Although Korean guidelines excluded kanamycin from MDR-TB drug (Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis) classification, they recommended that kanamycin be use as a substitute for amikacin until more data are available.
Experts and professionals are performing an excellent job in the hospital. It is another effective way to avoid the spreading of the infection. There is a separate room for the people infect with the disease. It is to help them to get better treatment and recovery in the short term. Make sure that you are getting appropriate information to treat the patients.
The final words
To proper diagnose and get treat, it is advisable to consult a professional and Dr. Virendra Singh is best that we have. He will advise you properly to control the infection and to get the desired results.